The human body is made up of cells, tissues, and organs, and it consists of many systems. These include the circulatory, digestive, skeletal, immune, and nervous systems. All of these systems are dependent on each other to keep the body functioning. Whether you are a student, parent, nurse, or doctor, it is important for everyone to understand anatomy and how the body functions.
The circulatory system, also known as the cardiovascular system, is responsible for moving blood through the body. This system is made up of veins, arteries, blood vessels, and the heart. The heart pumps the blood, which then moves oxygen and nutrients throughout the body.
Digestive and Excretory Systems
The digestive system takes the food that you eat and turns it into forms that are useful to the body. Food is broken down and moves through the mouth, esophagus, stomach, and intestines, where the nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream. The intestines also process the waste that’s left over and move it on to exit the body. The excretory system works alongside the digestive system to remove toxins from the body. The kidneys are the main part of this system; they work to filter toxins out of the blood and produce urine.
The endocrine system is one that works behind the scenes and is often forgotten, yet it affects almost every cell and organ in the human body. This system makes hormones, chemicals that control everything from your growth to your emotions.
Integumentary and Exocrine Systems
The integumentary and exocrine systems consist of the skin, hair, nails, and exocrine glands. The skin, hair, and nails protect the inside of the body from harmful germs that cause infections. Skin and exocrine glands also regulate the body’s temperature by sweating to cool you down and narrowing blood vessels to help you stay warm. The skin also helps you feel textures and temperatures.
Lymphatic and Immune Systems
The immune and lymphatic systems are a combination of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to fight off sickness and disease. The immune system has the job of fighting off germs, while the lymphatic system, which includes tonsils, lymph nodes, and the spleen, carries infection-fighting cells throughout the body and helps move toxins out of the body. Not only do these systems work to fight off diseases and illnesses, but they are in charge of nursing the body back to health when it does get sick.
Muscular and Skeletal Systems
The skeletal system is made of your bones, and it gives your body its shape. The skeleton also protects your internal organs. The bones making up the skeleton are connected by joints, cartilage, and ligaments and are surrounded by the muscular system, your muscles. In addition to surrounding the bones, the muscular system helps the body move, which allows people to run and play.
The nervous system is a network that helps the parts of your body “talk” to each other. Nerve cells send messages from parts of the body to the brain and back, allowing you to move and to use your senses. When you see, hear, touch, smell, or taste something, information travels to your brain, where the brain figures out that you’ve just seen a shooting star or heard your favorite song. The brain is the most important part of the nervous system: It’s like a computer that runs your whole body, allowing you to do everything from remembering your mom’s birthday to pulling your hand away from a hot stove.
The renal/urinary system is a part of the excretory system. It has the job of removing waste through urination. The kidneys help to filter out extra water in your body and pull out toxins from your blood, combining these to make urine. The urine then moves through the urinary tract, including the ureters, bladder, and urethra.
All living creatures reproduce, which means to make more of themselves. Humans do this by having babies. Although some people make up stories that babies are delivered by a stork, in reality, it is the reproduction system that is responsible for this job. Both males and females play a role in reproduction, with each having their own set of reproductive system parts. Reproductive parts include the penis, testicles, vagina, ovaries, and uterus.
The respiratory system is made up of a group of organs and tissues that supply oxygen to the entire body. The lungs and airways take in air and filter out the oxygen, moving it into the blood. Then, carbon dioxide is pulled out of the blood and into the lungs for you to breathe out.